第一景观网(www.ela.cn)是第一景观传媒主办的针对于中国景观设计界推出的高端门户网站。创建于2003年9月9日,原名艺之景网,是中国最早创建以景观设计产业为核心的景观媒体。
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将公共空间转变为城市功能系统
2011-12-15 09:53:59   来源:第一景观网   评论:0

未来景观需要寻找能够重新建立和维护与城市里的自然环境的接触,将公共空间转变为城市功能系统,并且将我们周围的自然环境视作城市生活的生态支持的景观设计解决方案。
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受访人:XWHO设计集团景观设计副总裁 Alex Camprubi
时间:2011年11月11日
采访媒体:《建筑中国周刊》  第一景观网 
记者:王一函

《建筑中国周刊》:在您眼中艾斯弧是一家什么样的公司,请介绍一下艾斯弧的发展历史?

Alex:XWHO is a subsidiary company of RECON Network, founded in the United States by several renown professionals in the design field who are linked with Ivy league universities, mainly Harvard 40 years ago. Mr. Xia Jian Tong, as a Harvard Graduate of the School of Design, participated in the planning of Xihu Lake in Hangzhou 12 years ago along with his professors and now partners with a successful project who led to a continuous collaboration with the local governments in China and then settled a branch company in China.

After 12 years, RECON has 3 main offices in China, Beijing, Shanghai and Hangzhou with a staff of 500 people and has participated in around 2000 projects across China.

Alex:
艾斯弧是睿肯国际设计集团旗下分公司。睿肯集团成立于上世纪60年代,由设计领域内知名专家组建。这些专家学者多为美国哈佛大学及其他常青藤名校的教授。夏建统先生毕业于哈佛大学设计学院。在12年前夏先生与他当时的博士生导师也是现在的合作伙伴一起参与了杭州西湖的规划项目。这一项目成功的建立了与当地政府的长期合作,夏先生也在之后组建了艾斯弧中国分公司。

经过12年的经营,睿肯集团分别在北京,上海,杭州建立了分公司,公司规模500人,在中国参与了2000多个项目。

《建筑中国周刊》:艾斯弧在未来的景观市场中的规划是什么?

Alex:China is in a historical moment of transformation and development that started 20 – 30 years ago, it will take another 20 or 30 years ahead to achieve this generational transformation. Seen the future design market in to this framework, we are now located in the middle of this period of transformation, Cities are being built and transformed continuously driving economy, creating a need to design the public space and a market for landscape designers. We see that the market requires specialized landscape solutions, Chinese market is getting more sophisticated; Clients require stronger skills to solve technical problems and therefore we have prepared for that already. Actually RECON Network is bringing its subsidiary companies from the United States and a specialized international group of people to China to respond to this demand.

RECON in China has prepared to restructure XWHO and to give specialized service to the clients in the fields of Landscape Architecture, Urban Planning and Architecture with 3 subsidiary companies: 3E Landscape, XWHO and MOS.

 That said, 3E Landscape as a subsidiary company of RECON is part of the transformation and specialization process that will handle the landscape projects. XWHO will also have the same specialization process in the Urban Planning field and MOS with the Architecture projects.

Within this restructure in 3E Landscape we will be able to improve our information systems and increase our  research to increase will bring added value to our projects and respond to the demand of our clients and our future clients.
 
Alex:中国现在正处于一个转型发展的历史性时刻。这一转型期开始于20-30年前,并还将持续20-30年才能完成这一转变。在这样的发展框架中看未来的设计市场,可以发现我们正处于这一转型期的中间。不断建设和转型的城市推动了经济的发展,促进了公共空间的设计需求,也催生了景观设计师市场的出现。我们看到市场需要专门的的景观解决方案,随着中国市场的日臻完善,客户需要更强大的技巧解决技术问题,而我们也已经做好了准备。事实上,睿肯集团从美国将自己的子公司以及专业的国际团队带到中国正是为了回应这种需求。

睿肯集团已经准备在中国重组艾斯弧,以便为客户提供更细化专业的服务。按照景观、建筑、规划专业分类,将下设3E、XWHO、MOS 三个子公司。

也就是说,3E景观作为睿肯集团旗下的子公司将在整个集团的转型和专业化过程中,专门负责景观设计这部分的项目。XWHO将负责城市规划领域,MOS负责建筑领域的项目。

在重组3E景观过程中,我们将改善信息系统,增加调研以提升项目的价值,并更好地满足客户的需求。

《建筑中国周刊》:
目前中国的景观设计正处在与国际交融的特殊阶段,有优势也有劣势,你对此怎么看?

Alex:Globalization has had a great impact in civilization through several periods of history. The last frenetic cycle of globalization happened in the 1980’s and had an impact in the whole world, not only China. Hence it matched a historical moment with the “Opening of China” promoted by Deng Xiao Ping after 30 years of limited foreign trade, and this issue had a stronger effect on what we perceive today in Chinese landscape design.

Many countries are dealing with this “blending” of international concepts; these countries that have the same challenges than China and are also looking for landscape design solutions that are relevant to the global society we are living in, pursuing to fit our historical moment of an urban society who need efficient, sustainable and low carbon solutions.
 
In my understanding China is exporting Landscape Design the same way that it is importing from other countries. Chinese Landscape Designers are increasingly having more presence in the world than before. Furthermore, China has a long lasting landscape design heritage; from this heritage background there is a broad inspiration to develop a contemporary and authentic landscape architecture language…. maybe more than one.

In 3E Landscape we believe landscape design is not only about form, landscape design is running away from ornament to become an eco-service to urban fabrics. Landscape design has broadened the scale of competence from gardening to landscape urbanism.

Landscape design has become an integral part of every design in China (even though there is a short history of the term landscape design in China). The reason emerges from the long lasting Chinese tradition of appreciating nature. Every Chinese person loves trees, mountains and water. This is a big advantage over other countries who still do not have this tradition.

Today our challenge in 3E Landscape is to find solutions to recreate and preserve the contact with nature inside cities, transform the public space into a functional urban system or understand our natural surrounding as an ecological support for urban life.

About the “blending concept”: as long as we bring in knowledge from the outside to China that will enhance landscape design made in China or for China, it is an advantage. And as long as the Chinese cultural and landscape heritage gets endangered by the western influence, it is a disadvantage.

 Alex:全球化在历史上的几个时期对文明产生了强烈的影响。全球化上一个狂热周期发生在1980年代,对包括中国在内的全世界范围影响巨大。而且这一影响恰恰契合了在中国邓小平主导的改革开放这一历史时刻。这一次变革结束了中国延续几乎三十年的外贸局限,并对我们今天接触的景观设计产生了巨大影响。

很多国家都面临着相同的国际理念融合的局面。这些国家同中国一样面对挑战,也在寻找全球社会都需要的景观设计的解决方案,追求适合这一历史环境下的城市社会需要高效、可持续发展、低碳的应对措施。

在我看来,中国正在以从国外吸收相同的方式向外输出着自己的景观设计理念。中国的景观设计师正以前所未有的方式出现在世界舞台之上。此外,中国有着长久传承的景观遗产,这一背景为发展成为现代和正宗的景观设计语言提供了广泛多样的灵感。

在3E景观我们认为景观设计不仅仅局限于形式。景观设计正渐渐脱离环境装饰的单一作用,而成为建造生态城市的服务工具。景观设计已经从园林扩大到了景观城市化的范畴。景观设计已经成为中国设计中不可分割的一部分(虽然景观设计这一概念在中国的历史还很短),原因在于长久以来中国拥有欣赏自然的传统,每一个中国人都热爱山川树木。这是其他国家传统中不具备的优势。

如今,3E景观的挑战在于寻找能够重新建立和维护与城市里的自然环境的接触,将公共空间转变为城市功能系统,并且将我们周围的自然环境视作城市生活的生态支持的景观设计解决方案。

关于融合的概念:所有从国外引入中国的知识都能够提高中国的景观设计,这是一个优势。但只要中国的文化和景观遗产过多的受到西方影响的威胁就会成为劣势。

《建筑中国周刊》:能否举例说明您的设计作品在中国是怎样体现本土化的?
 Alex:Of course, It gets to my mind a competition for the landscape of the new Cultural Center in Songbei, Haerbin. A 250 hectare site where conditions and climate were extreme. We made research about boreal landscapes into the Amur – Heilong River Basin which included an analysis of the landscape diversity; moreover we brought vegetation concepts from boreal and temperate forests and understood the cultural background, the challenges of the natural habitats in the surrounding areas including the endangered species.  Afterwards, we came into a concept of a 5km long boreal black dragon path, which told a story of the boreal culture around Heilongjiang and its comparison to other similar regions, we designed pavilions that would be exhibition spaces where to read about the Amur –Heilong River Basin, its climate, its environment, its fauna and flora and the challenges to preserve the endangered species. We took the endangered species of birds as the names for the different zones in the project to increase consciousness in the society and as themes for sculptures in the park, understood the seasonal landscape and made a path design to maximize the use and attractiveness of the space during the whole year.

Other example is the new Creative Design District Plaza in Xihongmen. A competition to develop the landscape of a 40 thousand square meter plaza. Having as a background the Chinese twelve five year plan where China is changing its image to the world from “made in China” to “created in China”, We undertook the task by a deep understanding of what this meant to our field of work
We thought about the role of the open space and public space in the plaza. We were aware of an important commercial space on the first underground floor and concerned about how to attract people to the place, guide them through the plaza and introduce them to the creative motto of the center.

With a limited budget our concept sought after the awareness and continuous reaction of our senses: touching, smelling, hearing and watching; we came out with a concept of an “Interactive Landscape” which would bring creative opportunities for people to explore. These opportunities could vary from interacting with features embedded in the landscape design, or even in designing multimedia screen software with a fashionable artistic approach in an easy way.

Our design included giant multimedia touch screens; fountains whose behavior were triggered by the movement of people; pavements that would react to shadows and in turn made a video projection of digital illusions (namely: moving water drops or waves, or dynamic colors simulating random lighting lines); sets of benches that would turn on different sounds depending on the number of people around and therefore stimulating awareness; interactive walls to play with and create temporary artworks; cameras triggered by puzzles that record the memory of the people in the place and displays it afterwards in the giant screens.

 In 3E Landscape we strive to achieve a meaningful landscape design, with a strong sense of identity that I linked to the place, the client and the users, which will enhance the sensorial experience of movement through the space.

 
 Alex:当然,我现在想到的是哈尔滨松北地区新文化中心景观设计的竞标项目。这个项目占地250公顷,土地条件和气候极端。我们做了阿穆尔-黑龙江盆地的寒带景观调研,包括景观多样性的分析。此外我们引入了寒带与温带森林的植物概念,充分理解了当地的文化背景,研究周围地区自然栖息地包括濒危物种面临的生态条件。之后,我们给出了一个以黑龙 江及其相似地区北方文化为背景的,5公里长的北方黑龙之路的设计概念。我们设计了作为展览区域的展亭,在这里人们可以了解阿穆尔-黑龙江盆地的气候、环境、动植物种群以及保护濒危物种面临的挑战。我们选择用濒危鸟类的形象作为公园中主题雕塑的设计,用它们名字给项目中不同区域命名,以此来提高社会保护濒危动物的意识。同时我们利用季节性景观和道路景观的设计,成功地达到全年景观效果最大化。
 
另一个案例是北京西红门地区的创意港景观设计竞标项目----设计一个占地四万平米的广场. 以十二五计划为背景,中国的国际形象正在从“中国制造”向“中国创造”转变。我们深入理解了这一背景对这个项目的意义,开始了这一项目解决方案的设计工作。

 我们认为这个广场在整个地块中是一个开放空间和公共空间的角色。我们意识到地下一层商业区的重要性,考虑将如何吸引客流,引导他们穿过广场并且 向人们强调创意产业这一项目主旨。

 基于有限的预算,我们产生了追求人的不同感觉的反应和意识的想法。这些感觉包括触觉,嗅觉,听觉和视觉。我们提出了互动景观的概念,这一概念为人们提供了探索创意的机会。这些机会可能因为植入景观设计或是时尚艺术感的多媒体屏幕软件中互动方式的不同而呈现出多样性。

我们的设计包括巨型的多媒体触摸屏;喷洒模式受周围活动人群行为触动的感应喷泉;由投影机向地面投射各种数字影像,这些影像对人们在地面上的活动作出反应(它们分别是:移动的水滴或海浪,动态的颜色变化激发随意的光线); 受经过人群不同人数触动可以播放不同声音的座椅组; 通过挪动单元模块创造临时性艺术作品的互动景观墙;通过拼图游戏触动摄像机拍摄下在此活动的人们的影像,并在稍后投放到多媒体屏幕上,创造出广场与人们特别的回忆

在三易景观,我们努力创造有意义并且带有强烈的地方/企业/客户辨识度的景观设计,这样的设计将会加强在整个景观环境中的感知体验

《建筑中国周刊》:在景观的可持续发展方面,您是否会引进国外关于低碳环保方面的先进理念和技术来做设计?

 Alex:I think our generation needs to work seriously to understand if a standard is needed for making sustainable landscapes. We do not have one; maybe we need more than one. Situations in landscape design vary greatly. There is a constant search of professionals after this standardization and the approaches are very distant when analyzing both ends.

 In 3E Landscape, we take every opportunity our clients give us to deliver a low carbon and sustainable practices in our designs. What is interesting about your question is that you are mentioning about bringing them out of China…… when it seems that solutions to landscape design also need to be found in the old way of life, in nature, in history, in understanding how our grandfathers lived and established an everyday relationship to their environment. You never know from where the right solution for a specific problem in the project will come.
 
 Alex:我认为我们这一代人需要认真地思考是否真的需要一个可持续发展景观的标准。我们并没有一个标准,也许这个标准是多样化的。在景观设计中实际情况差别很大。在标准化之后,需要有专业人员持续的研究,而研究结果将具有很大的差异化。

在3E景观,我们利用客户给我们的每一个机会,在我们的设计中使用低碳和可持续发展的理念。景观设计的解决方案也需要从旧时的生活方式中寻找。这需要我们充分理解自然、历史,甚至是我们的祖辈如何生活并与他们的生活的环境建立起日常关系。你永远不知道未来项目中具体问题的解决方案从何而来。

《建筑中国周刊》:您有二十年的从业经验,您认为中国的青年景观设计师有哪些优点和不足?能否给中国青年景观设计师在职业发展上面给一些建议?

 Alex:Advantages of Chinese landscape designers are the strong skills of understanding and living with nature, and the long historical background of dealing with elements of landscape design. Landscape designers in China are hardworking people, committed and making constantly an effort to learn from the everyday work. They are fast learners, keen in what they see and hear, easy to adapt and prompt to evolution. Chinese young designers are able to criticize with more arguments as time goes by. A disadvantage might be that few Chinese designers explore different options by themselves other than having pressure from the client to make different options. However we should be aware that this is mainly a result of the situation of the market which requires fast speed projects to be done with no time for exploring and dealing and identifying new opportunities and potential creative solutions.

Sometimes is more important a fast well rendered project than a conscious simple sketch, which shows a disadvantage about the different understanding of values in our professional work.

I would suggest to young designers to specialize: to understand water flows and dynamics; to understand environmental engineering; to understand pollution controls; to understand the behavior of micro-climates; eco-services and so many other topics that are relevant to our profession. We need solutions that will make our professional life worth to society and humanity. We should search for a transcendental outcome of our work in every decision we make that gets drawn into the master plan.

The life of a designer requires developing the skill of constant learning; as a friend of mine said to me: One you learn how to learn, the rest is a simple procedure to follow.

 Alex: 中国景观设计师的优势在于他们理解自然,并与之和谐共处的能力,以及长期处理景观元素的设计背景。中国的景观设计师工作非常努力,愿意从每天的工作中不断的学习新的知识。他们学习很快,专注于自己的工作,具有很强的适应性。随着时间的推移,中国的年轻设计师们将有更多判断设计优劣的经验。不足之处在于,如果不是受到来自客户的压力,很少有中国设计师能自发的拓展出不同的想法。但是我们必须得注意到出现这种现象的原因在于市场留给项目设计的周期很短,设计师没有足够的时间去开拓新的或是潜在的设计解决方案。
 
有时一张快速渲染的效果图比一张认真绘制的草图更重要。这恰恰说明了我们工作中对于价值理解的不足。
我想要建议年轻的设计师们能够在水流动态,环境工程,污染控制,微气候表现,生态服务等等与专业相关的课题的理解上做到更专业。我们需要使自己的职业生涯对社会和人类更有价值。落到实处的每一个设计都应该经过深思熟虑,具有实际操作的意义,我们都应该追求一个经得起时间考验的设计成果。

设计师的生活需要发展不断学习的能力,就像我的一个朋友对我说过的:一旦你学会了学习的方法,余下的就是遵循简单的步骤


 

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